Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

1. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (Policies)

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1. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (Policies)
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2016
Summary Of Significant Accounting Policies Policies  
Company Overview

Boston Therapeutics, Inc., headquartered in Lawrence, MA, (OTC: BTHE) is a leader in the field of complex carbohydrate chemistry. The Company's initial product pipeline is focused on developing and commercializing therapeutic molecules for diabetes: BTI-320, a non-systemic, non-toxic, therapeutic compound designed to reduce post-meal glucose elevation. In addition, a formulation of the material SUGARDOWN®, falls within the regulatory dietary supplement guidelines and is designed to reduce post-meal blood sugar increases. In its patent portfolio, the Company had laboratory practical development of a combination material called IPOXYN. In its initial phase, IPOXYN is a continuous intravenous drug for the prevention of necrosis and treatment of ischemia with a first target indication for assisting in the treatment of lower limb ischemia often associated with diabetes.

 

The accompanying unaudited condensed financial statements have been prepared assuming the Company will continue as a going concern. The Company has limited resources and primarily a CRO/CMO contracted operating history. As shown in the accompanying unaudited condensed financial statements, the Company has an accumulated deficit of approximately $19.9 million and $923,000 cash on hand as of September 30, 2016. Management is restructuring and is currently seeking additional capital through private placements and public offerings of its common stock.  In addition, the Company may seek to raise additional capital through public or private debt or equity financings as well as collaboration activities in order to fund our operations. During the third quarter of 2015 through June 30, 2016, the Company has received ongoing funding through a fixed price convertible note from a related party and significant shareholder. During the third quarter of 2016, the Company raised additional funding from third party investors through the sale of 6% Convertible Notes. See Note 4. Management anticipates that cash resources will be sufficient to fund our planned operations into the first quarter of 2017. The Company has entered into an advisory agreement with an investment banking firm whereby the Company hopes to receive appropriate performance supported funding for its operations. The future of the Company is dependent upon its ability to obtain continued financing and upon future profitable operations from the partnering, development and clarity of its new business opportunities. There can be no assurance that the Company will be successful in accomplishing its objectives.  Without such additional capital, the Company may be required to cease operations.

 

These conditions raise substantial doubt about the Company's ability to continue as a going concern. The financial statements do not include any adjustments relating to the recoverability and classification of recorded assets, or the amounts of and classification of liabilities that might be necessary in the event the Company cannot continue operations.

Basis of Presentation

The accompanying unaudited condensed financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America ("U.S. GAAP") for interim financial information and the rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) for quarterly reports on Form 10-Q. These condensed financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Company's financial statements for its year ended December 31, 2015 included in its Form 10-K filed with the SEC on March 30, 2016. In the opinion of management, the statements contain all adjustments, including normal recurring adjustments necessary in order to present fairly the financial position as of September 30, 2016 and the results of operations for the three and nine month periods ended September 30, 2016 and 2015.

 

The year-end balance sheet data was derived from the audited financial statements but does not include all disclosures required by accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. The results disclosed in the statements of operations for the three and nine month periods ended September 30, 2016 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the full fiscal year.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

Accounts Receivable

Accounts receivable is stated at the amount management expects to collect from outstanding balances.  Management establishes a reserve for doubtful accounts based on its assessment of the current status of individual accounts.  Balances that remain outstanding after management has used reasonable collection efforts are written off against the allowance.  There were no allowances for doubtful accounts as of September 30, 2016 and December 31, 2015.  At December 31, 2015, there were no accounts receivable. 

Inventory

Inventory consists of raw materials, and finished goods of SUGARDOWN®. Inventories are stated at the lower of cost (first-in, first-out) or market, not in excess of net realizable value. The Company adjusts the carrying value of its inventory for excess and obsolete inventory. The Company continues to monitor the valuation of its inventory.

  

Revenue Recognition

The Company generates revenues from sales of SUGARDOWN®. Revenue is recognized when there is persuasive evidence that an arrangement exists, the price is fixed and determinable, the product is shipped in accordance with the customers’ Free On Board (FOB) shipping point terms and collectability is reasonably assured.  In practice, the Company has not experienced or granted significant returns of product. Shipping fees charged to customers are included in revenue and shipping costs are included in costs of sales.

 

As disclosed in Note 8 of the Notes to Unaudited Condensed Financial Statements, Advance Pharmaceutical Company Ltd., a related party, accounted for 0% and 91% of the Company’s revenue during the three months ended September 30, 2016 and 2015, respectively.  During the nine months ended September 30, 2016 and 2015, Advance Pharmaceutical accounted for 0% and 78% of the Company’s revenue, respectively.    

Fair Value of Financial Instruments

Fair values determined by Level 1 inputs utilize observable data such as quoted prices in active markets. Fair values determined by Level 2 inputs utilize data points other than quoted prices in active markets that are observable either directly or indirectly. Fair values determined by Level 3 inputs utilize unobservable data points in which there is little or no market data, which require the reporting entity to develop its own assumptions. The Company’s financial instruments consist of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable, accrued expenses, and notes payable. The carrying value of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses approximates fair value due to their short-term nature using level 3 inputs as defined above. The carrying value of the notes payable as of September 30, 2016 and December 31, 2015, evaluated using level 3 inputs defined above based on quoted market prices on rates available to the Company for debt with similar terms and maturities, approximates the fair value.

Convertible Instruments

U.S. GAAP requires companies to bifurcate conversion options from their host instruments and account for them as free standing derivative financial instruments according to certain criteria. The criteria include circumstances in which (a) the economic characteristics and risks of the embedded derivative instrument are not clearly and closely related to the economic characteristics and risks of the host contract, (b) the hybrid instrument that embodies both the embedded derivative instrument and the host contract is not re-measured at fair value under otherwise applicable generally accepted accounting principles with changes in fair value reported in earnings as they occur and (c) a separate instrument with the same terms as the embedded derivative instrument would be considered a derivative instrument. An exception to this rule is when the host instrument is deemed to be conventional, as that term is described under applicable ASC 480-10.

When the Company has determined that the embedded conversion options should not be bifurcated from their host instruments, the Company records, when necessary, discounts to convertible notes for the intrinsic value of conversion options embedded in debt instruments based upon the differences between the fair value of the underlying common stock at the commitment date of the note transaction and the effective conversion price embedded in the note. Debt discounts under these arrangements are amortized over the term of the related debt to their stated date of redemption.

Common Stock Purchase Warrants and Other Derivative Financial Instruments

The Company classifies as equity any contracts that (i) require physical settlement or net-share settlement or (ii) provide the Company with a choice of net-cash settlement or settlement in its own shares (physical settlement or net-share settlement) providing that such contracts are indexed to the Company's own stock. The Company classifies as assets or liabilities any contracts that (i) require net-cash settlement (including a requirement to net cash settle the contract if an event occurs and if that event is outside the Company’s control) or (ii) gives the counterparty a choice of net-cash settlement or settlement in shares (physical settlement or net-share settlement). The Company assesses classification of its common stock purchase warrants and other free standing derivatives at each reporting date to determine whether a change in classification between assets and liabilities is required.

The Company’s free standing derivatives consisted of warrants to purchase common stock that were issued in connection with the issuance of debt and of embedded conversion options with senior convertible debentures. The Company evaluated these derivatives to assess their proper classification in the balance sheet as of September 30, 2016 using the applicable classification criteria enumerated under ASC 815-Derivatives and Hedging. The Company determined that certain embedded conversion and/or exercise features do not contain fixed settlement provisions. The convertible debentures contain a conversion feature such that the Company could not ensure it would have adequate authorized shares to meet all possible conversion demands. 

As such, the Company was required to record the debt and warrant derivatives which do not have fixed settlement provisions as liabilities and mark to market all such derivatives to fair value at the end of each reporting period.   

Based upon ASC 840-15-25 the Company has adopted a sequencing approach regarding the application of ASC 815-40 to its outstanding convertible notes. Pursuant to the sequencing approach, the Company evaluates its contracts based upon earliest issuance date.

Stock-Based Compensation

Stock–based compensation, including grants of employee and non-employee stock options and modifications to existing stock options, is recognized in the income statement based on the estimated fair value of the awards. The Company uses the Black-Scholes option pricing model to determine the fair value of options granted and recognizes the compensation cost of share-based awards on a straight-line basis over the vesting period of the award.

 

The determination of the fair value of share-based payment awards utilizing the Black-Scholes model is affected by the stock price and a number of assumptions, including expected volatility, expected life, risk-free interest rate and expected dividends. The Company has a limited history of market prices of the common stock, and as such volatility is estimated using historical volatilities over the prior three years. The expected life of the awards is estimated based on the simplified method. The risk-free interest rate assumption is based on observed interest rates appropriate for the terms of our awards. The dividend yield assumption is based on history and expectation of paying no dividends. Forfeitures are estimated at the time of grant and revised, if necessary, in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates. Stock-based compensation expense is recognized in the financial statements on a straight-line basis over the vesting period, based on awards that are ultimately expected to vest.

 

The Company grants stock options to non-employee consultants from time to time in exchange for services performed for the Company. Equity instruments granted to non-employees are subject to periodic revaluation over their vesting terms. In general, the options vest over the contractual period of the respective consulting arrangement and, therefore, the Company revalues the options periodically and records additional compensation expense related to these options over the remaining vesting period.

 

Loss per Share

Basic net loss per share is computed based on the net loss for the period divided by the weighted average actual shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per share is computed based on the net loss for the period divided by the weighted average number of common shares and common equivalent shares outstanding during each period unless the effect of such common equivalent shares would be anti-dilutive. Common stock equivalents represent the dilutive effect of the assumed exercise of certain outstanding stock options using the treasury stock method.  The weighted average number of common shares for the three and nine month periods ended September 30, 2016 did not include 59,495,233, and 12,289,000 and 28,424,669 for convertible notes payable and accrued interest, options and warrants, respectively, because of their anti-dilutive effect. The weighted average number of common shares for the three and nine month periods ended September 30, 2015 did not include 8,029,900 and 12,424,669 for options and warrants, respectively, because of their anti-dilutive effect.

Recent Adopted Accounting Pronouncements

In April 2015, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued ASU 2015-03 “Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs,” which requires debt issuance costs to be presented in the balance sheet as a direct deduction from the carrying value of the associated debt liability, consistent with the presentation of debt discounts or premiums.  The ASU is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2015, and interim periods within those fiscal years.  The Company elected early adoption of this standard during the period ended March 31, 2015, which did not have a material impact on its financial statements.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2014-09, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606).” ASU No 2014-09 supersedes the revenue recognition requirements in “Topic 605, Revenue Recognition” and requires entities to recognize revenue in a way that depicts the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. ASU 2014-09 is effective retrospectively for annual or interim reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016, with early application not permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this standard on its financial statements.

 

In August 2014, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2014-15, Presentation of Financial Statements – Going Concern. The new standard addresses management’s responsibility to evaluate whether there is a substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern.  It requires management to perform interim and annual assessments of the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern and to provide related disclosures.  The standard will be effective for annual periods ending after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016.  The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this standard on its financial statements.