SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING PRACTICES
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2017
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING PRACTICES||
1. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Boston Therapeutics, Inc., headquartered in Lawrence, MA, (OTC: BTHE) is a leader in the field of complex carbohydrate chemistry. The Company’s initial product pipeline is focused on developing and commercializing therapeutic molecules for pre-diabetes and diabetes: BTI-320, a non-systemic, non-toxic, therapeutic investigative material designed to reduce post-meal immediate glucose elevations which according to recent findings, is important in prediabetes and diabetes sugar management. In addition, a formulation of the material, SUGARDOWN®, falls within the regulatory dietary supplement guidelines and is designed to reduce immediate post-meal blood sugar increases “sugar spikes” which can only be significantly controlled by prescription insulin. In its patent portfolio, the Company has considered laboratory proof of concept development of a combination material called IPOXYN, a complex carbohydrate with an oxygen carrier protein of unique characteristics. In its initial phase, IPOXYN presents as a continuous intravenous drug for the prevention of necrosis, and event pending in many traumatic injuries and similarly, for possible treatment of ischemia with a possible target indication for assisting in the treatment of lower limb ischemic disorders often associated with diabetic neuropathies. The Company has been granted patents in the Ipoxyn and in the BTI-320 compound formulations.
The accompanying unaudited condensed financial statements have been prepared assuming the Company will continue as a going concern. The Company has limited resources and primarily a CRO/CMO contracted operating history. For the last few years, BTI has been largely supported by its Asia development license holder, who is also a Director of the Company and a significant shareholder. The license holder has participated in the ongoing development of the Sugardown related technologies. As shown in the accompanying unaudited condensed financial statements, the Company has an accumulated deficit of approximately $19.8 million and $297,000 cash on hand as of September 30, 2017. Management is currently seeking additional capital through private placements and public offerings of its common stock and more recently through corporate alliances and strategic merger opportunities. In addition, the Company may seek to raise additional capital through public or private debt or equity financings as well as collaboration activities in order to fund our operations. Management anticipates that the current cash available will be sufficient to fund our planned operations into the first quarter of 2018. The future of the Company is dependent upon its ability to obtain continued financing and upon future profitable operations from the partnering and development for clarification of its new business opportunities. There can be no assurance that the Company will be successful in accomplishing its objectives. Without such additional capital, the Company may be required to cease operations.
These conditions raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern. The financial statements do not include any adjustments relating to the recoverability and classification of recorded assets, or the amounts of and classification of liabilities that might be necessary in the event the Company cannot continue operations.
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited condensed financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) for interim financial information and the rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) for quarterly reports on Form 10-Q. These condensed financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Company’s financial statements for its year ended December 31, 2016 included in its Form 10-K filed with the SEC on March 28, 2017. In the opinion of management, the statements contain all adjustments, including normal recurring adjustments necessary in order to present fairly the financial position as of September 30, 2017 and the results of operations for the three and nine month periods ended September 30, 2017 and 2016.
The condensed balance sheet, as of December 31, 2016, was derived from the audited financial statements but does not include all disclosures required by accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. The results disclosed in the statements of operations for the three and nine month periods ended September 30, 2017 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the full fiscal year.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Accounts receivable is stated at the amount management expects to collect from outstanding balances. Management establishes a reserve for doubtful accounts based on its assessment of the current status of individual accounts. Balances that remain outstanding after management has used reasonable collection efforts are written off against the allowance. There were no allowances for doubtful accounts as of September 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016.
Inventory consists of raw materials, and finished goods of SUGARDOWN®. Inventories are stated at the lower of cost (first-in, first-out) or market, not in excess of net realizable value. The Company adjusts the carrying value of its inventory for excess and obsolete inventory. The Company continues to monitor the valuation of its inventory.
The Company generates revenues from sales of SUGARDOWN®. Revenue is recognized when there is persuasive evidence that an arrangement exists, the price is fixed and determinable, the product is shipped in accordance with the customers’ Free On Board (FOB) shipping point terms and collectability is reasonably assured. In practice, the Company has not experienced or granted significant returns of product. Shipping fees charged to customers are included in revenue and shipping costs are included in costs of sales.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Fair values determined by Level 1 inputs utilize observable data such as quoted prices in active markets. Fair values determined by Level 2 inputs utilize data points other than quoted prices in active markets that are observable either directly or indirectly. Fair values determined by Level 3 inputs utilize unobservable data points in which there is little or no market data, which require the reporting entity to develop its own assumptions. The Company’s financial instruments consist of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable, accrued expenses, and notes payable. The carrying value of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses approximates fair value due to their short-term nature. The carrying value of the notes payable as of September 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, evaluated using level 3 inputs defined above based on quoted market prices on rates available to the Company for debt with similar terms and maturities, approximates the fair value.
U.S. GAAP requires companies to bifurcate conversion options from their host instruments and account for them as free standing derivative financial instruments according to certain criteria. The criteria include circumstances in which (a) the economic characteristics and risks of the embedded derivative instrument are not clearly and closely related to the economic characteristics and risks of the host contract, (b) the hybrid instrument that embodies both the embedded derivative instrument and the host contract is not re-measured at fair value under otherwise applicable generally accepted accounting principles with changes in fair value reported in earnings as they occur and (c) a separate instrument with the same terms as the embedded derivative instrument would be considered a derivative instrument. An exception to this rule is when the host instrument is deemed to be conventional, as that term is described under applicable ASC 480-10.
When the Company has determined that the embedded conversion options should not be bifurcated from their host instruments, the Company records, when necessary, discounts to convertible notes for the intrinsic value of conversion options embedded in debt instruments based upon the differences between the fair value of the underlying common stock at the commitment date of the note transaction and the effective conversion price embedded in the note. Debt discounts under these arrangements are amortized over the term of the related debt to their stated date of redemption.
Common Stock Purchase Warrants and Other Derivative Financial Instruments
The Company classifies as equity any contracts that (i) require physical settlement or net-share settlement or (ii) provide the Company with a choice of net-cash settlement or settlement in its own shares (physical settlement or net-share settlement) providing that such contracts are indexed to the Company’s own stock. The Company classifies as assets or liabilities any contracts that (i) require net-cash settlement (including a requirement to net cash settle the contract if an event occurs and if that event is outside the Company’s control) or (ii) gives the counterparty a choice of net-cash settlement or settlement in shares (physical settlement or net-share settlement). The Company assesses classification of its common stock purchase warrants and other free standing derivatives at each reporting date to determine whether a change in classification between assets and liabilities is required.
The Company’s free standing derivatives consisted of warrants to purchase common stock that were issued in connection with the issuance of debt and of embedded conversion options with senior convertible debentures. The Company evaluated these derivatives to assess their proper classification in the balance sheet as of September 30, 2017 using the applicable classification criteria enumerated under ASC 815-Derivatives and Hedging. The Company determined that certain embedded conversion and/or exercise features do not contain fixed settlement provisions. The convertible debentures contain a conversion feature such that the Company could not ensure it would have adequate authorized shares to meet all possible conversion demands.
As such, the Company was required to record the debt and warrant derivatives which do not have fixed settlement provisions as liabilities and mark to market all such derivatives to fair value at the end of each reporting period.
Stock–based compensation, including grants of employee and non-employee stock options and modifications to existing stock options, is recognized in the income statement based on the estimated fair value of the awards. The Company uses the Black-Scholes option pricing model to determine the fair value of options granted and recognizes the compensation cost of share-based awards on a straight-line basis over the vesting period of the award.
The determination of the fair value of share-based payment awards utilizing the Black-Scholes model is affected by the stock price and a number of assumptions, including expected volatility, expected life, risk-free interest rate and expected dividends. The Company has a limited history of market prices of the common stock, and as such volatility is estimated using historical volatilities over the prior three years. The expected life of the awards is estimated based on the simplified method. The risk-free interest rate assumption is based on observed interest rates appropriate for the terms of our awards. The dividend yield assumption is based on history and expectation of paying no dividends. Forfeitures are estimated at the time of grant and revised, if necessary, in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates. Stock-based compensation expense is recognized in the financial statements on a straight-line basis over the vesting period, based on awards that are ultimately expected to vest.
The Company grants stock options to non-employee consultants from time to time in exchange for services performed for the Company. Equity instruments granted to non-employees are subject to periodic revaluation over their vesting terms. In general, the options vest over the contractual period of the respective consulting arrangement and, therefore, the Company revalues the options periodically and records additional compensation expense related to these options over the remaining vesting period.
Loss per Share
Basic net loss per share is computed based on the net loss for the period divided by the weighted average actual shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per share is computed based on the net loss for the period divided by the weighted average number of common shares and common equivalent shares outstanding during each period unless the effect of such common equivalent shares would be anti-dilutive. Common stock equivalents represent the dilutive effect of the assumed exercise of certain outstanding stock options using the treasury stock method. The weighted average number of common shares for the nine month period ended September 30, 2017 does not include 64,624,013, and 12,094,000 and 39,404,669 for convertible notes payable and accrued interest, options and warrants, respectively, because of their anti-dilutive effect. The weighted average number of common shares for the three and nine month period ended September 30, 2016 did not include 54,495,233, 12,289,000 and 28,424,669 for convertible notes payable and accrued interest, options and warrants, respectively, because of their anti-dilutive effect.
Recent Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
There are various updates recently issued, most of which represented technical corrections to the accounting literature or application to specific industries and are not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef