2. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING PRACTICES
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2012
|Notes to Financial Statements|
|NOTE 2 - SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING PRACTICES||
Basis of Presentation
The financial statements have been prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepting in the United States of America (US GAAP).
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Operating segments are identified as components of an enterprise about which separate, discrete financial information is available for evaluation by the chief operating decision-maker, or decision-making group, in making decisions on how to allocate resources and assess performance. The Company views its operations and manages its business as one operating segment.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
For purposes of reporting within the statement of cash flows, the Company considers all cash on hand, cash accounts not subject to withdrawal restrictions or penalties, and all highly liquid investments with original maturities of 90 days or less at the time of acquisition to be cash equivalents. The Company maintains its cash in institutions insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.
The Company generates revenues from sales of SUGARDOWN®. Revenue is recognized when there is persuasive evidence that an arrangement exists, the price is fixed and determinable, the product is shipped and collectability is reasonably assured.
Revenue is recognized as product is shipped from an outside fulfillment operation. Terms of product sales contain no contractual rights of return or multiple elements. In practice, the Company has not experienced or granted returns of product. Revenues are recorded net of local sales tax collected. Shipping fees charged to customers are included in revenue and shipping costs are included in costs of sales.
Accounts receivable is stated at the amount management expects to collect from outstanding balances. Management establishes a reserve for doubtful accounts based on its assessment of the current status of individual accounts. Balances that remain outstanding after management has used reasonable collection efforts are written off against the allowance. As of December 31, 2012 and 2011 the allowance for doubtful accounts was $0.
Inventory consists of raw materials and finished goods of SUGARDOWN®. Inventories are stated at the lower of cost (first-in, first-out) or market, not in excess of net realizable value. The Company adjusts the carrying value of its inventory for excess and obsolete inventory. The adjustments to the carrying value of inventory for the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011 were $0 and $1,667, respectively. The Company continues to monitor the valuation of its inventories.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment is depreciated using the straight-line method over the following estimated useful lives:
The Company begins to depreciate assets when they are placed in service. The costs of repairs and maintenance are expensed as incurred; major renewals and betterments are capitalized. Upon sale or retirement, the cost and related accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts and any resulting gain or loss is included in the statement of operations. For the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011, the Company recorded depreciation expense of $682 and $0, respectively.
Intangible assets consist of identifiable finite-lived assets acquired in business acquisitions. Acquired intangible assets are recorded at fair value on the date of acquisition and are amortized over their economic useful lives on a straight line basis
The Company follows the guidance of Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 350, Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets.
Under ASC 350, goodwill and certain other intangible assets with indefinite lives are not amortized, but instead are reviewed for impairment at least annually.
The Company tests goodwill for impairment in the fourth quarter of each year or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the asset might be impaired. The test is based on a comparison of the reporting units book value to its estimated fair value. The Company has concluded that no impairment existed at the 2012 testing date. A considerable amount of judgment is required in calculating this impairment analysis, principally in determining financial forecasts and discount rates. Differences in actual cash flows as compared to the discounted cash flows could require the Company to record an impairment loss in the future.
Impairment of Long-lived Assets
The Company reviews long-lived assets, which include the Companys intangible assets, for impairment whenever events or changes in business circumstances indicate that the carrying amounts of the assets may not be fully recoverable. Future undiscounted cash flows of the underlying assets are compared to the assets carrying values. Adjustments to fair value are made if the sum of expected future undiscounted cash flows is less than book value. To date, no adjustments for impairment have been made.
Loss per Share
Basic net loss per share is computed based on the net loss for the period divided by the weighted average actual shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per share is computed based on the net loss for the period divided by the weighted average number of common shares and common equivalent shares outstanding during each period unless the effect of such common equivalent shares would be anti-dilutive. Common stock equivalents represent the dilutive effect of the assumed exercise of certain outstanding stock options using the treasury stock method. The weighted average number of common shares for the year ended December 31, 2012 did not include consideration of 8,353,400 common stock options and warrants because of their anti-dilutive effect. The weighted average number of shares for the year ended December 31, 2011 did not include consideration of 1,578,400 common stock options because of their anti-dilutive effect.
The Company accounts for income taxes under the asset and liability method. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or be settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. A valuation allowance is provided when it is more likely than not that some portion of the gross deferred tax asset will not be realized. The Company records interest and penalties related to income taxes as a component of provision for income taxes. The Company did not recognize any interest and penalty expense for the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011.
Research and Development Costs
Research and development expenditures are charged to the statement of operations as incurred. Such costs include proprietary research and development activities, purchased research and development, and expenses associated with research and development contracts, whether performed by the Company or contracted with independent third parties.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The Companys financial instruments consist of cash and cash equivalents, accounts payable, accrued expenses, and notes payable. The carrying value of cash and cash equivalents, accounts payable and accrued expenses approximates fair value due to their short-term nature.
The carrying value of the advances payable as of December 31, 2012 and 2011, is not materially different from the fair value of the advances payable.
Concentration of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk are principally cash and cash equivalents. The Company places its cash and cash equivalents in highly rated financial institutions. The Company maintains cash and cash equivalent balances with financial institutions that occasionally exceed federally insured limits. The Company has not experienced any losses related to these balances, and management believes its credit risk to be minimal.
Stockbased compensation, including grants of employee and non-employee stock options and modifications to existing stock options, is recognized in the income statement based on the estimated fair value of the awards. The Company uses the Black-Scholes option pricing model to determine the fair value of options granted and recognizes the compensation cost of share-based awards on a straight-line basis over the vesting period of the award.
The determination of the fair value of share-based payment awards utilizing the Black-Scholes model is affected by the stock price and a number of assumptions, including expected volatility, expected life, risk-free interest rate and expected dividends. The Company does not have a history of market prices of the common stock as, and as such volatility is estimated using historical volatilities of similar public entities. The expected life of the awards is estimated based on the simplified method. The risk-free interest rate assumption is based on observed interest rates appropriate for the terms of our awards. The dividend yield assumption is based on history and expectation of paying no dividends. Forfeitures are estimated at the time of grant and revised, if necessary, in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates. Stock-based compensation expense is recognized in the financial statements on a straight-line basis over the vesting period, based on awards that are ultimately expected to vest.
The Company grants stock options to non-employee consultants from time to time in exchange for services performed for the Company. Equity instruments granted to non-employees are subject to periodic revaluation over their vesting terms. In general, the options vest over the contractual period of the respective consulting arrangement and, therefore, the Company revalues the options periodically and records additional compensation expense related to these options over the remaining vesting period.
The fair value of stock options granted was calculated with the following assumptions:
The weighted-average fair value of stock options granted during the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011, under the Black-Scholes option pricing model was $0.30 and $0.20 per share, respectively. For the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011, the Company recorded stock-based compensation expense of $480,108 and $149,727, respectively, in connection with share-based payment awards. As of December 31, 2012, there was approximately $1,654,000 of unrecognized compensation expense related to non-vested stock option awards that is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 2.50 years.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In July 2012, the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, issued Accounting Standards Update, or ASU, No. 2012-02, Intangibles Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Testing Indefinite-Lived Intangible Assets for Impairment. This ASU allows an entity to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is necessary to perform the quantitative impairment test for indefinite-lived intangible assets. An organization that elects to perform a qualitative assessment is required to perform the quantitative impairment test for an indefinite-lived intangible asset if it is more likely than not that the asset is impaired. This ASU, which applies to all public, private, and not-for-profit organizations, is effective for annual and interim impairment tests performed for fiscal years beginning after September 15, 2012. Early adoption is permitted, including for annual and interim impairment tests performed as of a date before July 27, 2012, if a public entitys financial statements for the most recent annual or interim period have not yet been issued or, for nonpublic entities, have not yet been made available for issuance. The adoption of this ASU did not have a material impact on the Companys consolidated financial statements, as it was intended to simplify the impairment assessment for indefinite-lived intangible assets. In February 2013, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2013-2, Comprehensive Income (Topic 220): Reporting of Amounts Reclassified Out of Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income. The amendment, required to be applied prospectively for reporting periods beginning afte December 15, 2012, requires entities to present, either on the face of the statement where net income is presented or in the notes, significant amounts reclassified out of accumulated other comprehensive income by the respective line item of net income. Early adoption is permitted. Our financial statement presentation complies with this standards update.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef